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  • Gatekeepers - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    give them the power to decide whether or not particular creative acts or products are placed into channels of transmission or creative outlets by which they can become visible to relevant audiences In the literary world for example editors publishers and owners of bookstores function as gatekeepers Harrington 1999 In the system approach gatekeepers are people who have the right to add memes to a domain Csikszentmihalyi 1999 324 and

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  • Genius - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    a person with unusual intellectual powers The genius of a woman was sometimes referred to as a juno In art the genius of a person was frequently depicted as a winged youth the genius of a place as a serpent Daemon or genius was considered a real source of human creativity At some point the ways of daemon and genius diverged Greek daemon was turned to demon in Christianity that was suspicious and even an adversary to inspiration if it was not confirmed by the Church as having the right source i e the Scripture interpreted by the Church in accordance with the demand of the moment and its current interests The freedom of freethinking and expression that the ancient Greeks enjoyed was suppressed or at least channelled into a narrow path of Christian faith Genius has been more fortunate It held its position in culture through the Renaissance and Romanticism and it has survived until our own day even if some scientists consider it an impediment to scientific research of creativity Sternberg and Lubart 1999 5 In modern usage genius refers to innate ability which leads to intellectual excellence and exceptional creativity and it denotes a specific type of human an extraordinary individual who is acutely innovative original and superior Negus and Pickering 2004 139 However the concepts of genius still holds some mystical connotations suggesting inspiration from the supernatural powers the unconscious or the higher states of consciousness Genius has been often opposed to talent as an innate creative ability and the highest manifestation of creativity to a mere predisposed response to education Unlike talent original genius was truly exceptional and by definition was to be exempt from the rules customs and obligation that applied to the talented Albert and Runco 1999 Genius is defined by accomplishments and

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  • Gestalt theory - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    and developed by Wertheimer K hler and Koffka in 1910s as a reaction against associationism that had dominated psychology It was an application of field theory newly developed in physics to the study of human perception It suggests that people have a natural inclination to organize perceptions into gestalts or wholes and to find meanings in what they perceive The relations between the associated parts of a whole set of stimuli are particularly important for these endow the whole with more meaning than the sum of its parts Gestalt theory suggests that one tends particularly to organize one s perceptions into good gestalts to perceive sets of stimuli as wholes in which there is harmony closure or symmetry among the parts Wertheimer 1945 described a problem as an incomplete structure or bad gestalt which causes intellectual tensions Such tensions he said drive one to find a solution to the problem that brings a sense of harmony between the parts and the whole structure so that the whole has symmetry and elegance In essence Wertheimer s notion of the creative process as the destruction of an existing gestalt in the service of building a better one may be expressed as the

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  • Golden age - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    Y Z Gatekeepers Genius Gestalt theory Golden age Group creativity References Creativity Links Golden age The period in the history of a civilization or society during which numerous highly creative people live in one place at the same time as opposed to the dark ages which are marked by the decline of creativity Golden age Dictionary of Creativity Terms Concepts Theories Findings in Creativity Research Compiled and edited by Eugene

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  • Group creativity - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    to emphasize the role of solitary genius in the creative process See Creativity as a cultural construction Non individual anonymous or group creativity have usually remained at the periphery of research interest and other evaluation criteria have been applied to such works As Negus and Pickering 2004 142 note speaking about the situation in the arts Eventually the products of individual artistic creation in economically privileged countries are displayed in art galleries while the artworks of so called primitive or underdeveloped societies largely relegated to museums of ethnography or anthropology Group creativity has attracted the attention of researchers relatively recently A discussion on creative collaboration has been carried on both theoretical and practical levels Schrage 1995 Bennis and Biederman 1997 Hargrove 1998 John Steiner 2000 Gundry and LaMantia 2001 Honig and Rostain 2003 There is a growing body of research into the role of creative collaboration in music Gillis 1966 theatre Sawyer 2003 film industry Travis 2002 psychotherapy Lewin 1997 group communication Frey 2002 and in the process of innovation Paulus and Nijstad 2003 Creative collaboration is conspicuous on the Internet where it takes multiple forms Many successful projects on the Internet from open source software to virtual communities and

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  • Habit - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    creativity As William James 1899 put it The force of habit the grip of convention hold us down on the Trivial Plane we are unaware of our bondage because the bonds are invisible their restraints acting below the level of awareness They are the collective standards of value codes of behavior matrices with built in axioms which determine the rules of the game and make most of us run most

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  • Heredity - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    mirrored in both science and literary fiction Darwins natural selection Origins of Species 1859 was complimented by his cousin Galton s artificial selection Hereditary Genius 1869 In literature from Hoffmann s Romanticism through Zola s Naturalism and Dickens Realism to Meyrink s Post Romanticism heredity largely determined construction of the plot In the latter part of 19 th century it was complemented by the concept of environmental or social determinism

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  • Historiometric approach - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    study of illustrious creators the foundation of creativity birth order intellectual precocity childhood trauma family background educational and special training role of mentors and masters the manifestation of creativity change of creative styles through age differential and social psychology of phenomenal creativity Normally historiometry concentrates on historical rather than contemporary subjects As Simonton 1984 17 explains One rationale for this focus is that exploitation of historical populations may maximize our ability to discover any transhistorically invariant laws of creativity and leadership Hypotheses about the nature of genius should be tested on samples with the maximum amount of cultural and historical variety if a behavioral law holds across such diversity then it has the highest probability of universal validity However he notes ibid 18 historiometricians do not always study just dead people as the hypotheses permit the subjects can be very much alive Creators and leaders can make history in their own lifetimes The principle that eminence is the best indicator of historical genius applies to both contemporary creators as well People who were honoured by inclusion in Who s Who an encyclopedia a historical treatise or even a biography can be treated like any eminent figure of the past ibid

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