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  • Price's law - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    Psychedelic approach Psychodynamic approach Psychometric approach References Creativity Links Price s law A refined formulation of Lotka s law made by Price 1963 According to Price s law half of all scientific contributions are made by the square root of the total number of scientific contributors thus if there are 100 scientists within a given discipline just 10 of them will account for 50 percent of all publications The Price

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  • Primary process - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    of the unconscious This activity is marked by the free discharge of energy and excitation without regard to the demands of environment reality or logic It prevails in dreams and some mental illnesses especially psychoses but also plays a significant role in the creative process It produced images that seem strange and illogical for awakened consciousness The production of these images is governed by the mechanisms of condensation and displacement

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  • Psychedelic approach - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    as conscious states that can be recognized by an individual or by an external observer of that individual as representing a major difference in behaviour and experience from ordinary baseline states of waking consciousness Altered states of consciousness may be induced by psychoactive drugs such as marihuana LSD or mescaline or by other means such as meditation and sensory deprivation The psychedelic approach to creativity is based on the idea that the normal state of consciousness restricts people s awareness and consciousness enhancement is needed to realize one s fullest creative potential Barron 1965 Masters and Houston 1966 1968 Abraham McKenna and Sheldrake 1992 Creativity can be considered as a discrete class of psychedelic phenomena Krippner 1999 Gowan 1972 1973 1975 1980 developed a comprehensive taxonomy of exotic factors of intellect and paranormal powers and abilities which he classified in three classes trance art and creativity according to its relation to numinous element He argued that the psychedelic experience connects a person to an impersonal universal source of knowledge called the collective preconscious or the numinous which is the source of all creativity all paranormal knowing all of the hidden occult faculties Gowan 1980 48 The work of mapping of

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  • Psychodynamic approach - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    energies residing within the individual rather than external forces thus following the logics of Humanism However unlike Galton who focussed on the effects of genetic determinants of intellectual powers Freud concentrated on the effects of instinctual needs on emotional experience and imagination Ochse 1990 8 Moreover Whereas Galton had suggested that certain individuals are endowed with intellectual capacities and natural urges that lead them to gain reputation and reach the top of their fields Freud suggested that all people are endowed with natural emotional urges that may find creative expression ibid 16 Freud s theory has been much criticized for its speculative nature dogmatism and reductionism Brown 1989 having applied to Freudian theory criteria of the scientific method proposed by Lakatos 1976 assessed it as a degenerated program Freud himself acknowledged in his Autobiographic Study 1925 that Psychoanalysis can do nothing towards elucidating the nature of the artistic gift nor can it explain the means by which the artist works artistic technique However despite its limitations Freud s teaching had a great influence on understanding of human nature in the 20th century and what is also noteworthy it became a modelling principle for large part of the 20 th art including literature painting and cinema His works on creativity had significant influences on later theoretical approaches to the subject of creativity Freud s theory has been further developed by his followers Thus Ernst Kris 1952 introduced the concept of preconscious and considered the use of the primary process in creativity as a regression in the service of the ego Kris s idea of the preconscious as a source of creativity was supported by Lawrence Kubie 1958 Another important idea was the one of dissociation Phyllis Greenacre 1953 suggested that the ego of the future artist is capable of dissociating itself

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  • Psychometric approach - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    direct measurement of creativity and or its perceived correlates such as knowledge abilities attitudes and personality traits in individual It studies everyday creativity using various tests Plucker and Renzulli 1999 The founder of psychometric approach J P Guilford 1954 1967 considered divergent thinking as the most important ingredient of creativity He also devised complex models to describe the cognitive process the Structure of Intellect SI consisting of 120 independent factors or abilities their number was later extended to 150 and then to 180 and Structure of Intellect Problem solving SIPS He proposed Unusual Uses Test in which the examinee had to find as much use for a common object as possible and other similar tests The legacy of psychometric approach is ambivalent As Sternberg and Lubart 1999 7 put it The psychometric resolution of measuring creativity had both positive and negative effects on the field On the positive side the tests facilitated research by providing a brief easy to administer objectively scorable assessment device Furthermore research was now possible with everyday people i e noneminent samples On the negative side first some researches criticized brief paper and pencil tests as trivial inadequate measures of creativity more significant productions such as

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  • Reactance - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    Reactance Responsive audience Role models References Creativity Links Reactance A motive to protect or restore one s sense of freedom in the face of normative influences Reactance Dictionary of Creativity Terms Concepts Theories Findings in Creativity Research Compiled and edited

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  • Responsive audience - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    O P R S T U V Y Z Reactance Responsive audience Role models References Creativity Links Responsive audience An audience that derives or creates value from the novel acts or products in which they come in contact thereby completing the fundamental cycle of social creativity Responsive audience Dictionary of Creativity Terms Concepts Theories Findings in Creativity Research Compiled and edited by Eugene Gorny Netslova ru 2007 http creativity netslova

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  • Role models - A Dictionary of Creativity by Eugene Gorny (Ed.)
    is a positive function of the number of models available in the preceding generation It was also found that eminent personalities were usually exposed very early in life to illustrious predecessors Walberg Rasher and Parkerson 1980 who studied the biographical antecedents of fame found that about 82 percent of their subjects were exposed to numerous adults very early in life about 68 percent grew up in the presence of adults who were working in areas where eminence would be achieved as an adult and 63 percent were exposed to eminent persons at a very early age These eminent individuals thus had many potential role models to identify with in the course of their early development At another age level it has been shown that over half of the Nobel laureates in science were apprentices to previous laureates Zuckerman 1977 These findings suggest that the availability of creative role models may be essential to the development of genius However sometimes models can have a stifling effect on creative achievement It was formulated that two conditions under which the influence of a famous model is beneficial rather than silencing Simonton 1994 380 1 models are more conducive to personal development if an

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